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Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis : validity and reproducibility of the Gaia 359 Plus and applicability in chronic wasting diseases

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Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis : validity and reproducibility of the Gaia 359 Plus and applicability in chronic wasting diseases

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Background – More research shows that a poor nutritional status is a systemic marker of disease severity in chronic wasting diseases. (Hidden) depletion of muscle mass negatively affects health-related quality of life and prognosis, and reduces exercise capacity due to a decrease in muscle strength. Multi-frequency whole-body and segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis is a potential method for a fast and easy clinical evaluation of body composition, giving insight in the nutritional status of these patients. (Early) detection of patients at risk for body and muscle wasting, would benefit treatment for this population, and make individualized dietary interventions possible. Objective – The purpose of this study was to determine whether multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, by the GAIA 359 PLUS, provided valid and reproducible data for body composition in healthy subjects, and in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) characterized by muscle wasting. COPD was used as a model for chronic wasting disease. Methods – In an exploratory research study in 21 healthy subjects (males (n=10), females (n=11)), age range from 21 to 56 y, the validity and reproducibility of a multi-frequency GAIA 359 PLUS 8-contact electrode bioelectrical impedance (BIA) system (Jawon Medical Co. Ltd., Shinsang, Korea) was evaluated. Whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), and total soft lean mass (SLM) and FM in the limbs (to derive total body skeletal muscle mass) and trunk were assessed by GAIA and compared to those values obtained by dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA) and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS). Results – Highly significant correlations were found for whole-body FFMGAIA, as compared to whole-body FFMDXA and whole-body FFMBIS (r = 0.96 and 0.92, respectively, P < 0.001). The same applies to segmental and trunk SLM (r = 0.95 and 0.93, respectively, P < 0.001). When calculating the FFM and FM on the basis of % body weight the difference between GAIA and DXA were -0.04% and 0.25%, respectively. For appendicular SLM, GAIA gave systematically higher values than DXA (2.7 kg; P < 0.001). Bland-Altman analyses showed wide limits of agreement, with substantial bias between individuals for whole-body FFM and appendicular SLM. Bias was considerably different for the men, as compared to the women. Regarding comparisons for FM between GAIA and DXA, trunk FM was significantly higher for GAIA than DXA (1.3 kg; P < 0.01). The between-day variation for GAIA was low (CV ≤ 2.4%). Reproducibility of both ankle and plate electrodes was high (CV ≤ 1.1%). Comparisons between postabsorptive and prandial state by GAIA resulted in significantly higher values for body weight and whole-body FM (0.2 kg and 0.4 kg, respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusions – The GAIA 359 PLUS can be considered an easy applicable, fast and reproducible method for assessing body composition that is low in costs. Although highly significant correlations were found on whole-body level and for segmental values, the specific underlying causes for the substantial bias between individuals needs to be further examined. Because of the low between-day variance and high reproducibility GAIA can be considered a good method to follow individuals during weight losing and weight gaining periods. For clinical practice more research needs to show its accuracy, most importantly in disease specific populations and conditions.

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OrganisatieHogeschool van Amsterdam
InstituutBewegen, Sport en Voeding
Gepubliceerd in
Jaar2009
TypeBachelorscriptie
TaalEngels

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