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Effects of a hypocaloric high-protein diet and resistance training on body composition, resting energy expenditure, fitness, and quality of life in an overweight adult population

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Effects of a hypocaloric high-protein diet and resistance training on body composition, resting energy expenditure, fitness, and quality of life in an overweight adult population

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Background: The incidence of obesity is increasing rapidly. Effective interventions for weight loss and prevention of weight regain on the long term are therefore essential. Both high protein (HP) diet and resistance training (RT) might help to facilitate loss of fat mass (FM), while preserving fat free mass (FFM). Aim: To determine the effects of a hypocaloric HP diet and a 9 week RT program on body composition, resting energy expenditure, fitness and quality of life (QoL) in overweight adults on both short (9 weeks) and longer term (6 months). Methods: 73 overweight adults were assigned to one of four hypocaloric study groups (2-by-2 factorial design): control, high-protein (HP) diet (27 energy% protein), resistance training (RT) or both (HPRT). Participants in RT groups performed a 9 week resistance-based program three times per week. After this intervention, monthly group sessions aimed at weight maintenance were organized for all groups. Measurements on body composition (air displacement plethysmography), fitness (Åstrand-test), resting energy expenditure (REE, indirect calorimetry) and QoL (SF-36) were performed at baseline, after 9 weeks, and after 6 months. Results: The 9 week intervention program was completed by 35 of 73 subjects. 21 completed 6 month measurements. Mean BMI at baseline was 31.6 (SD 4.6) kg/m2. After 9 weeks, RT resulted in a greater reduction in body fat percentage (-3.6 (SD 3.4) % fat, P=0.02), and increase in FFM (0.5 (SD 2.3) kg, P=0.04) compared to no-RT groups. In the HP groups, differences in body composition were not significant compared to no-HP groups: FM change was -3.0 (SD 3.8) % vs. -2.0 (SD 2.7) % (P= 0.38) and FFM change was 0.1 (SD 2.2) kg vs. -0.4 (SD 2.1) kg (P=0.53). Combining a HP diet with RT resulted in a significant increase (P=0.02) instead of decrease in FFM (+1.6 (SD 1.6) kg vs. control group –0.3 (SD 1.7) kg). Differences were not sustained after 6 months. There were no differences between intervention groups related to fitness and QoL. Conclusion: This study showed that combining a HP diet and RT resulted in a significant increase instead of decrease in FFM. More research, with a larger sample-size, and extra focus on compliance is advised to provide evidence for longer-term effects.

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OrganisatieHogeschool van Amsterdam
InstituutBewegen, Sport en Voeding
Gepubliceerd in
Jaar2010
TypeBachelorscriptie
TaalEngels

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