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Dietary Diversity Score of 3 primary schools in Kibwezi district, Kenya

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Dietary Diversity Score of 3 primary schools in Kibwezi district, Kenya

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Introduction: Dietary inadequacies of micronutrients are common in developing countries, like Kenya. The limited supply of animal products implies low intakes and low bioavailability of vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency in Kenya is the main cause of night blindness in children and increases the risk of illness and death from severe infections. The CassaVita study, as part of INSTAPA, was a randomized controlled trial studying the “efficacy of bio fortified yellow cassava to improve vitamin A status of mildly deficient primary school children in Kenya”. In this present study, as part of the CassaVita study, a dietary diversity score (DDS) method was used to measure the diversity in diet among the primary school children in Kibwezi district, Kenya. Dietary diversity is a qualitative measurement of food consumption that reflects household access to a variety of food groups. By looking at the DDS of the three research groups of the CassaVita study differences in serum vitamin A between those groups could be linked to differences in DDS. This will provide the CassaVita study with a tool for analyzing and interpreting the results of that study. Aim: To investigate the difference in the dietary diversity scores (DDS), taken in all foods consumed, calculated with the quantitative 24 hour recall method, between the 3 study groups, of 337 children aged 5-13 years, of the CassaVita study in Kibwezi district, Kenya. Methods: The study population was 337 children aged 5-13 years living in Kibwezi District, Kenya, from three different primary schools. The children were randomly allocated in three research groups who all got a lunch of maize and beans five times a week at school and cassava six times a week, provided by the CassaVita study (INSTAPA). Two groups got a portion of white cassava, one group got a portion of yellow cassava (bio fortified with 50% RDA of vitamin A). A DDS including the lunch and cassava at school was conducted, as well as a DDS excluding the lunch and cassava at school. A quantitative 24hR of all foods consumed by the children was performed from 26 September until 18 October 2012. In this study the DDS, using the 24hR, was scored on 16 different food groups based on the validated FAO-guidelines. The final DDS includes nine food groups, combining certain groups and excluding others, also based on the FAO-guidelines. For interpreting the outcomes of the DDS the Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis test in SPSS were used. Results: There was a significant difference in DDS between the three research groups (p<0,001) when looked at the DDS only eaten at home, excluding the meals (cassava, maize and beans) provided by the CassaVita project. Also a significant difference was found in intake of vitamin A rich products between the three research groups (p<0,001), but not when cassava, maize and beans intake at school (provided by the CassaVita project) was excluded (p=0,32). The difference in DDS between boys and girls was significant (p<0,001). Also the difference in DDS between the three schools was significant (p=0,044). Conclusion: This study suggests that there was a difference in diet between the three research groups of the CassaVita study which could have influenced the outcomes in serum vitamin A. This study also suggests the possible influence of different variables (gender, age, household size, social economic status) on the DDS.

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OrganisatieHogeschool van Amsterdam
InstituutBewegen, Sport en Voeding
Gepubliceerd in
Jaar2013
TypeBachelorscriptie
TaalEngels

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