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Does body composition relate to physical performance in older (55 years and over) overweight adults?

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Does body composition relate to physical performance in older (55 years and over) overweight adults?

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How does body composition relate to physical performance? The relation between body composition and physical performance in older (55 years and over) overweight adults. Background/ objectives: Previous research showed that BMI could not be used to show a relationship with physical performance. Further investigation was needed for a better understanding of how body composition might influence the physical performance in older adults (55 years and over) and how this relates to overweight and obesity. Subjects/ methods: 159 older adults (55 years and over) from two weight-loss trials were included in this study. Body composition (body weight, fat mass, lean mass and waist circumference) and physical performance (handgrip strength, chair stand test, usual walking speed (4m gait speed) and maximal walking speed (400m walking test)) were evaluated at baseline and after intervention. Regression analysis was applied to evaluate the relation between body composition and physical performance and the change in body composition related to change in physical performance. These models were adjusted for age, gender and height. In body composition fat mass was corrected for lean mass. Results: Subjects were 65.4% female, mean age was 62.9 ±5.6 years. Mean BMI was 32.7 (± 4.26) and mean body weight was 93.1 ±13.7kg. At baseline body weight alone showed little specific relation with physical performance after adjustment for confounders. Looking at what body weight is built up from; lean mass and fat mass. If a person has more lean mass or less fat mass, handgrip strength is stronger (β [lean mass %]= 0.23, p= 0.01, R² 0.66, β [lean mass kg]= 0.33, p <0.001, R² 0.68 and β [fat mass %]= -0.23, p= 0.01, R² 0.66). Looking at how changes in body composition and changes in physical performance, caused by the intervention, were related to each other. The only significant overall relation shown was an increase in waist circumference with a decrease in the 400m walking speed (β= -0.005, p =0.04, R² 0.01). Conclusions: Findings from this study show that there was a relation between a higher lean and lower fat mass and a more powerful handgrip strength in older (55 years and over) overweight adults After a weight loss intervention, looking at changes, the only significant relations overall are shown in increases in waist circumference with decreases in the 400m walking speed. A larger study needs to be performed to get a clearer view on the relation between changes in body composition and changes in physical performance.

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OrganisatieHogeschool van Amsterdam
InstituutBewegen, Sport en Voeding
Gepubliceerd in
Jaar2014
TypeBachelorscriptie
TaalEngels

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