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Minerals and healthy ageing : a systematic review : the effect of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, and sodium on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in the elderly

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Minerals and healthy ageing : a systematic review : the effect of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, and sodium on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in the elderly

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Samenvatting

Background As the world’s population grows older, so grows the prevalence of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance. To counteract sarcopenia, nutrition might play an important role. So far, there is no complete overview of the data of various observational or interventional studies on the effect of minerals to treat or prevent sarcopenia. Objectives The aim of this systematic review was to assess the impact of various minerals on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance in the elderly. Methods This review draws upon results collected from a systematic search in the PubMed database. The studies that were used as the basis of this review were selected using pre-defined eligibility criteria. Studies were included if they examined the effect of dietary intake of minerals or mineral blood concentrations, on muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance in healthy or frail human populations with a mean age of 65 years. Studies were assessed on relevance and quality by two independent researchers. Results A total of thirteen studies have been included in this review. Calcium was positively associated with muscle mass and physical performance in men, but not in women. The effect of calcium on sarcopenia remains unclear. The intake of iron was significantly associated with gait speed in men, but not in women. Magnesium supplementation is shown to have a significant effect on physical performance, and sarcopenic elderly had a significantly lower intake of magnesium. Intake of phosphorus and selenium was also significantly lower in sarcopenic elderly individuals. The association between dietary selenium and physical performance is still unclear. No studies were found that discussed the effects of sodium or potassium on muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance. Conclusions Minerals could potentially play an important role in preventing and treating sarcopenia. An adequate intake of minerals in elderly should be emphasized; especially magnesium shows to have a positive effect on sarcopenia, in particular on physical performance. More research into the role of minerals in muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance is desired, since evidence is poor.

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OrganisatieHogeschool van Amsterdam
OpleidingVoeding en Diëtetiek
AfdelingBewegen, Sport en Voeding
Jaar2016
TypeBachelor
TaalEngels

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