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The impact of vitamins on physical performance, muscle strength and muscle mass in the elderly : Systematic review on the effects of vitamins on physical performance, muscle strength and muscle mass in the elderly

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The impact of vitamins on physical performance, muscle strength and muscle mass in the elderly : Systematic review on the effects of vitamins on physical performance, muscle strength and muscle mass in the elderly

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Background Nutrition is an important denominator in the treatment and prevention of sarcopenia. To date, few systematic reviews exist with an overview of the RCT’s conducted on vitamins and their role in muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Objective The goal of this study is to explore current literature on the effect of vitamin B-11, B-12, C, D and E and its effect on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in the elderly aged 60 and older. Studying the collected data might give more insight in the role that these vitamins play in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Methods Systematic research was performed in PubMed between March 1st and April 15th. Included studies were randomized control trials (RCT), with a research population above 60 years of age, without a calorie restricted diet or diseases and illnesses that effected metabolism that studied muscle mass, muscle strength or physical performance. All dosing intervals and doses of vitamin supplementation with or without calcium, compared with placebo were included as long as only the effect of the vitamin was part of the intervention. 1324 potential studies were selected of which 6 RCT’s got included in this systematic review. The search was performed by one independent reviewer. Results In total 6 randomized controlled trials were included in this systematic review in which 4275 individuals were involved, the mean age of the subjects was 76,3 years. One study found significant positive effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle strength in institutionalized elderly. Three studies found a significant positive effect in secondary analysis on physical performance and muscle strength after vitamin D supplementation in those with low baseline physical performance. Vitamin D supplementation mainly effected time up and go, postural sway, chair stand, hip extensor, hip adductor, knee extension and hip flexion. No improvements in muscle mass were found after vitamin D supplementation. One study examined the effect of a combined intervention with B-11 and B-12, but found no significant results after treatment. No data was found on vitamin C and E. Conclusion Vitamins are poorly studied, no data was found concerning vitamin C and E and limited data of B11-12 and more research is needed. However, vitamin D seems to play a role in physical performance and muscle strength in the elderly, especially in those with low baseline performance and low vitamin D status. Despite the difficulty in analyzing the data due to various designs, populations, supplementation dose and variations in baseline vitamin D status, supplementation of 800IU or higher seems useful for most frail elderly in improving muscle function and consequently might increase self-reliance. These doses come with no adverse effects. Vitamin D supplementation might prove valuable in preventing and treating sarcopenia, however, more research is needed to confirm the effectiveness.

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OrganisatieHogeschool van Amsterdam
OpleidingVoeding en Diëtetiek
AfdelingBewegen, Sport en Voeding
Jaar2016
TypeBachelor
TaalEngels

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