This publication gives a different take on energy and energy transition. Energy goes beyond technology. Energy systems are about people: embedded in political orders and cultural institutions, shaped by social consumers and advocacy coalitions, and interconnected with changing parameters and new local and global markets. An overview and explanation of the three end states have been extracted from the original publication and appear in the first chapter. The second chapter consists of an analysis exploring key drivers of change until 2050, giving special attention to the role of international politics, social dynamics and high-impact ideas. The third chapter explores a case study of Power to Gas to illustrate how the development of new technologies could be shaped by regulatory systems, advocacy coalitions and other functions identified in the ‘technology innovation systems’ model. The fourth chapter explores the case of Energy Valley to understand how local or regional energy systems respond to drivers of change, based on their contextual factors and systems dynamics.