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Determination of Pesticides in Cannabis

Graduation report

Rechten: Alle rechten voorbehouden

Determination of Pesticides in Cannabis

Graduation report

Rechten: Alle rechten voorbehouden

Samenvatting

The National Institute for Public Health and Environment (RIVM) has been requested by the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports, to investigate whether Dutch Cannabis contains pesticides. To answer this question, RIVM requested the police to collect hemp plants from illegal hemp plantations. The yield of these plantations is sold often to coffee shops for distribution. The aim of this investigation is to determine whether and if yes, which pesticides are used on hemp plants. The other goal is to quantify the amount of used pesticide. In a questionnaire sent to police forces it was reported that occasionally jerry cans have been found by hemp plantations that may contain pesticides. Previous studies have reported that in the past abamectin, dichlorvos and fenbutatin were used in hemp plantations,. This investigation does not only include some legal substances, like abamectin, imidacloprid, tebuconazole and triadimenol but also three groups of illegal substances, like organochlorides, organophosphates and poly chlorinated biphenyls.
The most samples were delivered by police forces from the regions "Haaglanden" and Flevoland. In total there were 114 samples, from illegal plantations. 88 samples came from 44 plants, and 26 samples were already packed in plastic bags. Besides these samples eight samples were obtained from coffee shops and three samples of medicinal hemp from the Trimbos institute. For the sample preparation two methods were used for comparison. The first method was developed for a previous study (determination of pesticides in tobacco) and had a preparation time of two days. The second method was the DisQuE kit from Water, which has a preparation time of 1-2 hour. The samples were analyzed according to two analytical methods on the gas chromatograph to determine which analytical method was more adequate. The first method was also from the previous study, and the second developed from the paper entitled "determination of multiclass pesticides in food commodities by pressurized liquid extraction using a GC-MS/Ms and LC-MS/MS". 48 samples, including six coffee shop samples were also analyzed on abamectin with the LC-MS at the Avans University.
The analysis of GC-MS resulted in the fact that one of the 114 samples was contaminated with substance. The library of the MS identified this as pronamide, but further investigation with the pronamide standard proved this not to be. The analysis of abamectin showed that six samples out of the 48 were contaminated with abamectin, which is one of the substances regularly found by the police.
The main disadvantage of this investigation was, that there was no knowledge beforehand about the pesticides that are used on hemp plantations, other than the reported ones in the previous study. There was a large amount of samples, but no samples with certain use of pesticides, or clean ones. These were the main reason to develop a screening test and not a specific test. At the end of the internship the positive sample was detected with the GC-MS, but the suspected standard was not available. When the standard was available only an identification analysis could be performed. This investigation needs further optimization with more types of pesticides to create a more reliable screening test. Also an LC-MS analysis should be performed standard in this investigation. Some of the pesticides can only be determined with the LC-MS.

Toon meer
OrganisatieAvans Hogeschool
AfdelingATGM Academie voor de technologie van Gezondheid en Milieu
PartnerNational Institute for Public Health and Environment (RIVM); Laboratory for Health Protection Research (GBO)
Datum2011-06
TypeBachelor
TaalEngels

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