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Battery Electric Vehicle Drive-Cycle Analysis and Model Improvement

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Battery Electric Vehicle Drive-Cycle Analysis and Model Improvement

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Samenvatting

For decades, diesel has been the main fuel for heavy duty vehicles. With the upcoming CO2-
legislation in Europe and the rise in Zero Emission Zones, DAF is investigating possibilities for
hybridization and electrification. The focus of this report is the driveline of the battery electric
truck, resulting from the collaboration between DAF and VDL.
The goal of this project was to improve the accuracy of the simulation model and analyze
different kind of drive-cycles for the battery electric vehicle. In order to reach this goal, different ways and methods have been used. To improve the accuracy of the simulation model, use has been made of data from the field test, by applying variation to the model and by reports from the Testing department.
To estimate the load on the driveline during the lifetime, use is made of drive-cycles. Drivecycles are series of data points which represent speed against time or distance. A height profile can be added to it when desired. Besides drive-cycles for durability, there also exist drivecycles for fuel consumption and emissions and drive-cycles for performance; each with their own characteristics.
Drive-cycles form the input of a simulation model. A first start with this model was been made
in AVL Cruise; a driveline simulation program. However, it was found that this model was not
as accurate as mentioned; the average percentage deviation was -21% with a spread of 40%.
By analyzing the energy flows inside the truck to compare the right consumptions, the average
percentage deviation improved with to -8%. This was because approximately 13% of the total
energy consumption goes to the auxiliaries of the truck. The next step was to take the weather
conditions of each trip in account, which influence the consumption a lot. The average
percentage deviation improved with 2%, but the spread decreased from 40% to 30%. The last
step was the improvement of regenerative braking. Firstly, the model only braked on the
electric motor, so the desired deceleration could not always be achieved. The influence on the
consumption however, was not big; the average percentage deviation improved to -3% with
still a spread of 30%. An explanation for this is that the truck almost always braked on the
electric motor.
With regard to drive-cycles, the first thought is use the drive-cycles of the internal combustion
engine vehicle directly for the battery electric vehicle. The driveline of the internal combustion
engine vehicle contains a clutch and a gearbox, which ensure slower acceleration due to
shifting. This is not necessarily the case with a battery electric vehicle. In the drive-cycles of
the internal combustion engine vehicle however, the acceleration behavior of the engine is
present. In order to solve this problem, a method to make drive-cycles vehicle-type
independent has been investigated. The theory behind this method is to replace the
acceleration of the internal combustion engine vehicle by a constant acceleration. The method
is not working properly yet, because some fundamental parts of the drive-cycle, like stops,
have frequently been taken out

Toon meer
OrganisatieHogeschool van Arnhem en Nijmegen
OpleidingAutomotive
AfdelingAcademie Engineering en Automotive
PartnersDaf Trucks N.V.
Datum2019-06-04
TypeBachelor
TaalNederlands

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