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Re-integration for returning Belgian Jihadists

how can the Belgian government improve its curent approach of dealing with returning jihadists in light of re-integration programmes across Europe?

Rechten: Alle rechten voorbehouden

Re-integration for returning Belgian Jihadists

how can the Belgian government improve its curent approach of dealing with returning jihadists in light of re-integration programmes across Europe?

Rechten: Alle rechten voorbehouden

Samenvatting

Since 2011, over 500 Belgian nationals have become radicalised and left Belgium for a Jihadist conflict zone. The Brussel bombings, on the 22nd of March 2016 were carried out by two Belgian nationals who were also returning Jihadists. This dissertation explores whether Belgium can improve its current approach regarding returning Jihadists in light if re-integration programs across Europe. Through a literature review, two case studies and three in-depth interviews.
The literature review establishes an understanding of why Belgium has the highest amount of Jihadist per capita by a framework of radicalisation. The Framing theory describes how strained environmental conditions in Belgium such as poor integration of Muslim youth and high unemployment cause individuals to become vulnerable and prone to radicalisation. These strained environmental conditions are then framed in ways where Social Islamist movements in Belgium for example Sharia4Belgium to radicalise individuals into becoming Jihadists and facilitate recruitment to their Islamist organisation (Teich, 2016, p. 37). Upon their return these individuals become returning Jihadists. Belgium’s current approach in dealing with returning Jihadist is, in short, a crisis centre, Task Force Syria and the Project returnees, the responsibilities are described as an efficient optimal coordination to ensure the information exchange between the local and federal police platform.
The case studies in the findings chapter provide insight in the re-integration programs. The German Hayat method works by educating the relatives about radical argumentation and ideological narratives in order to counter them. The Danish Aarhus method is the prevention of political and religious radicalisation of young people and in addition ensuring these young people are safe and are able to thrive. It also offers after-care for returnees, this includes: debriefing, psychotherapy, medical care, mentoring contacts and participation in the exit programme (J. Lundager Personal communication 1, May 2nd, 2016, p.5).
The research leads to the following recommendations for Belgium to improve its current approach. It is beneficial to develop a programme that includes family counselling, establish cooperation between police, society and social services, develop an exit strategy for returning Jihadists who are cleared of criminal suspicion, offer Jihadists still in a conflict zone a safe way to return home, improve the strained environmental conditions that can lead to recruitment to a radical group and initiate dialogue with Islamic communities that have previously seen members become radicalised.

Toon meer
OrganisatieDe Haagse Hogeschool
AfdelingMO Europese Studies / European Studies
Jaar2016
TypeBachelorscriptie
TaalEngels

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