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The effects of oil on different temperate marine species at 4, 12 and 20 degrees Celsius

Testing the species sensitivity of temperate species towards oil. To be used for comparison of sensitivity between temperate and Arctic species

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The effects of oil on different temperate marine species at 4, 12 and 20 degrees Celsius

Testing the species sensitivity of temperate species towards oil. To be used for comparison of sensitivity between temperate and Arctic species

Rechten: Alle rechten voorbehouden

Samenvatting

Industries from many countries want to exploit the North Pole region for natural reserves like oil. Because of global warming the (summer) ice sheet on the North Pole melts which will make remote areas more accessible in the North Pole area. This leads to increased environmental risks of petroleum development activities in the North Pole region. Risk assessment procedures can be used to characterize and quantify these risks and to ensure the protection of nature. Species live both in Artic and temperate altitudes. With available knowledge about the tolerance level of Arctic species the potential environmental impact can be determined. The available knowledge is limited though. The research for my final thesis carried out at IMARES, Yerseke, the Netherlands, will contribute to this knowledge gap. In this research project temperate species were studied, their sensitivity will later be compared with that of Arctic species in Svalbard. By performing oil toxicity tests valuable data for risk assessments are collected. Three different oil types were tested, in six different dilutions and in triplicate. This research project focused on three test species, standard test species that were cultured under lab conditions: Artemia fransiscana, Acartia tonsa and Brachionus plicatilis. Oil in water fractions (Water Accommodated Fractions – WAF) were prepared in the lab and test organisms were exposed to these WAF solutions. The survival rate of the test organisms were tested at 4, 12 and 20 degrees Celsius, by monitoring the mortality. Results showed that A. tonsa was the most sensitive of the tested species and A. fransiscana the most robust. DMA the most toxic oil type. Macondo oil was less toxic and with Oseberg oil the lowest response was observed. Furthermore temperature had an effect on mortality.
DMA was most toxic to A. tonsa at 12 degrees Celsius. The mortality rates at 20 and 4 degrees Celsius look quite similar however the effect at 4 degrees Celsius was slightly less probably due to a lower metabolism or possibly because at 4 degrees Celsius DMA WAFs were composed out of other substances. For B. plicatilis, differences between temperatures were less clear.
Macondo was most toxic to A. tonsa at 4 and 12 degrees Celsius. At 20 degrees the lowest mortality rates were observed. Macondo oil is a crude oil while DMA is volatile and probably reacts differently at other temperatures. B. plicatilis seemed to react more to Macondo at the lower temperature(12 degrees Celsius).

Toon meer
OrganisatieHZ University of Applied Sciences
OpleidingWatermanagement/ Aquatische Ecotechnologie
AfdelingDelta Academy
PartnersImares, Yerseke
Datum2015-06-26
TypeBachelor
TaalEngels

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