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Water use versus availability in the sub watershed San Francisco, Nicaragua

Rechten: Alle rechten voorbehouden

Water use versus availability in the sub watershed San Francisco, Nicaragua

Rechten: Alle rechten voorbehouden

Samenvatting

Recently, the sustainability of water sources, both in quantity and quality, is becoming a growing concern in Nicaragua. The major problems in the sub watershed San Francisco are decreasing river discharge, low water availability during the dry period, poor water quality and an increasing water demand. These problems are caused by over use of soil, deforestation, expansive urbanisation, erosion, contamination of water sources (UNAN, 2005), population growth and a lack of sanitation facilities. One of the problems is that water resources management is hindered by a lack of adequate and reliable hydrological, meteorological, and water quality data, as well as information on socioeconomic characteristics and indicators of water use efficiency and, in general, reliable indicators to be used as a basis in conflict solutions (Kome and Willet, 2006).

This thesis gives an overview of an inventory about water use and availability in the sub watershed San Francisco, located in the department of Matagalpa, Nicaragua, during dry period (in the month April).
The sub watershed San Francisco is divided in four regions: El Ocote, San José, San Francisco en La Granja. The water availability and water use is highest in the region San José and lowest in El Ocote. The water uptake for domestic and public use lies much higher than the theoretical need in the community San José; here 186 m3/d could be saved. In the regions San Francisco and La Granja, most water is used for irrigation. The total irrigation use in de four regions is 264 m3/d. Almost all water sources are highly contaminated. High discharges and thus high chemical loads make protection of water sources in San José very important and urgent.

With the current maximal water availability in the dry period, the river San Francisco can contribute 23% extra to the water treatment plant with a capacity of 101 l/s. This capacity is not enough to fulfil the total water demand of the city Matagalpa. The river Molino Norte contributes a yearly average of 61% to the treatment plant; the full capacity of the treatment plant is never used. When all irrigation activities and superfluously water use in San José would be stopped than theoretically the portion of water supply to the treatment plant, delivered out the river San Francisco, could increase with 5%, form 23% to 28%.
Data out the past show that the low water availability during the dry period is a natural yearly cycle; therefore the opportunity to use only the river San Francisco and Molino Norte as a drinking water source is small during the dry period. Therefore, an alternative drinking water source is needed during this period. However, during the raining period it is possible to use both rivers for the demand of the city Matagalpa. This implies an enlargement of drinking water treatment and maintenance and enlargement of the pumping station in the river San Francisco, which is not used at the moment.

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OrganisatieHZ University of Applied Sciences
OpleidingWatermanagement/ Aquatische Ecotechnologie
InstituutDelta Academy
PartnersProgramma Agua para Todos - Agua para Siempre
Gepubliceerd in
Datum2008-06-30
TypeBachelorscriptie
TaalEngels

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