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Non-structural Measures for climate change adaptation of urban areas in coastal Bangladesh

disaster Risk and Flood Management in Barisal City

Rechten: Alle rechten voorbehouden

Non-structural Measures for climate change adaptation of urban areas in coastal Bangladesh

disaster Risk and Flood Management in Barisal City

Rechten: Alle rechten voorbehouden

Samenvatting

Floods and cyclones are major problems at the coast of Bangladesh and expected to increase.
Climate change adaptation measures therefore are urgently required. Barisal City is located in the
coastal zone and plays an important role as regional centre for the surrounding. Barisal City is
focus point of this research on non-structural measures to reduce flood and cyclone vulnerability
in urban areas of coastal Bangladesh.
Compared to the rural surrounding – which is classified as extremely poor, Barisal is a
‘better-off’ area. However urban planning and management is challenged, frequent flooding and
waterlogging affect economic growth. In order to ensure an integrated approach a holistic typology
for disaster risk and flood management is introduced. The area is analysed with the help of maps
and literature - current policy strategies on national and local level have been studied.
Qualitative research in the form of coding was used to gain information on common problems in the
field of Disaster Risk Management.
Barisal City is currently already located in a ‘high risk
area’ for cyclones and storm surges, there is no big scale flood protection like polders. Disaster
preparedness in the form of cyclone shelters do not exist. Frequent water logging and seasonal
flooding interrupt business, school and government. Flooding occurs due to water logging in the
urban center when the drainage system is blocked. The western part of the urban core is located lower and therefore more prone to flooding. The rural surrounding is located lower as well: the khals (channels) drain
water from the river in the east during high discharge periods to the west, where it drains finally
towards the south-west. Informal settlements are scatter but often located along the river and the
khals. Embankment erosion but also channel encroachment and waste accumulation enhance flooding and
water logging. Most vulnerable to cyclones and storm surges are inhabitants of informal settlements
and poor housing due to a lack of shelter.

Effects of bio-physical drivers of change on the project area are currently uncertain, especially
planned hydropower dams in India might change the circumstances drastically. Predictions on an
increase of cyclone activity are uncertain while an increase of precipitation and cyclone induced
rainfall, land subsidence and sea level rise is more certain according to scholarly literature. As
a consequence the measures should be adaptive and should also contribute to other goals, e.g.
poverty reduction or sanitation to improve the quality of living in poor settlements.

The Master Plan Barisal 2010 (MP2010) lists problems and points out directions to solve them
according to modern urban development principles. Development control is one of the most important
tools, especially for flood management, and described in the MP2010 but only for the urban core
area. A higher tier authority for urban planning needs to be established in order to implement the
plan. This is currently considered as a major problem for the effectiveness and efficiency of the
MP2010. The flood and water logging problem and different solutions are mentioned in the plan.
However, prioritized projects are to a large extent road development projects. If disaster risk
and flood management is included in new road development projects is not clear but there is
indication that in general in Bangladesh local road construction projects do not require any
preconstruction assessments. Disaster Risk Management is missing in the plan. Participatory
resettlement projects for slum areas with compensation - described very detailed -
Project Area
Plan of Approach
Problem
Analysis
Risk and
Uncertainty
MP2010
Local Policy

might be a good possibility to reduce vulnerability to flooding. From the Master Plan it becomes
clear that urban development and municipal services face many difficulties, institutional
capacities are low. Insufficient waste management decreases drainage capacities. Commitment, time
and good urban governance is needed to realize the Master Plan Barisal 2010.

The review of literature on national policies showed examples of best practice but also that
mainstreaming and nationwide implementation of Disaster Risk Management remains a challenge. The
insights gained, lead to the conclusions that polices to a large extent, are not implemented on the
ground. Main problems are institutional capacities, funding and coordination.

Hence, additional non-structural measures to reduce flood and cyclone vulnerability are suggested
which [1] introduce synergies while fostering additional benefits to justify investments under
uncertainty, and [2] do not rely heavily on governmental institutions and enforcement of law, but
are connected to financial incentives and revenue models.

The suggested project example is briefly explained at this place. To decrease the vulnerability
especially to storms and storm surges for inhabitants of poor housing a cyclone shelter is one of
the few suitable measure. As day to day use, the shelter facilitates
A) a waste transfer station:
I
registered community members
receive a voucher when dropping off source separated waste at the shelter;
B) a ‘bio-centre’, providing public toilets, warm showers and cooking facilities, off-grid
solutions for energy production (biogas) and sewage treatment which have been proven a sustainable
business model.
The Integrated Community Shelter is an additional measure, next to structural measures which are
planned to improve flood management, and next to urban planning instruments which will improve the
situation in the long run. The Integrated Community Shelter is an example of sustainable
development and combines climate change adaptation with income opportunities and pro-poor urban
development.

Toon meer
OrganisatieHZ University of Applied Sciences
OpleidingWatermanagement/ Deltamanagement
AfdelingDelta Academy
PartnersEcorys Nederland BV
Datum2015-06-26
TypeBachelor
TaalEngels

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