As the Dutch electric vehicle (EV) fleet continues to expand, so will the amount of charging sessions increase. This expanding demand for energy will add on to the already existing strain on the grid, primarily during peak hours on workdays in the early morning and evening. This growing energy demand requires new methods to handle the charging of EVs, to distribute the available energy in the most effective way. Therefore, a large number of ‘smart charging’ initiatives have recently been developed, whereby the charging session of the EV is based on the conditions of the energy grid. However, the term smart charging is used for a variety of smart charging initiatives, often involving different optimization strategies and charging processes. For most practitioners, as well as academics, it is hard to distinguish the large range of smart charging initiatives initiated in recent years, how they differentiate from each other and how they contribute to a smarter charging infrastructure. This paper has the objective to provide an overview of smart charging initiatives in the Netherlands and develop a categorization of smart charging initiatives regarding objectives, proposed measures and intended contributions. We will do so by looking at initiatives that focus on smart charging at a household level, investigating the smart charging possibilities for EV owners who either make use of a private or (semi-)public charging point. The different smart charging initiatives will be analyzed and explicated in combination with a literature study, focusing on the different optimization strategies and requirements to smart charge an electric vehicle.
|Organisatie||Hogeschool van Amsterdam|
|Lectoraat||Lectoraat Energie en Innovatie|
|Gepubliceerd in||European Battery, Hybrid & Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Congress Geneva, Switzerland, CHE|