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Surface and Bulk Modification of Synthetic Textiles to Improve Dyeability

Surface and Bulk Modification of Synthetic Textiles to Improve Dyeability

Samenvatting

Synthetic fibers, mainly polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyamide (PA), polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polypropylene (PP), are the most widely used polymers in the textile industry. These fibers surpass the production of natural fibers with a market share of 54.4%. The advantages of these fibers are their high modulus and strength, stiffness, stretch or elasticity, wrinkle and abrasion resistances, relatively low cost, convenient processing, tailorable performance and easy recycling. The downside to synthetic fibers use are reduced wearing comfort, build-up of electrostatic charge, the tendency to pill, difficulties in finishing, poor soil release properties and low dyeability. These disadvantages are largely associated with their hydrophobic nature. To render their surfaces hydrophilic, various physical, chemical and bulk modification methods are employed to mimic the advantageous properties of their natural counterparts. This review is focused on the application of recent methods for the modification of synthetic textiles using physical methods (corona discharge, plasma, laser, electron beam and neutron irradiations), chemical methods (ozone-gas treatment, supercritical carbon dioxide technique, vapor deposition, surface grafting, enzymatic modification, sol-gel technique, layer-by-layer deposition of nano-materials, micro-encapsulation method and treatment with different reagents) and bulk modification methods by blending polymers with different compounds in extrusion to absorb different colorants. Nowadays, the bulk and surface functionalization of synthetic fibers for various applications is considered as one of the best methods for modern textile finishing processes (Tomasino, 1992). This last stage of textile processing has employed new routes to demonstrate the great potential of nano-science and technology for this industry (Lewin, 2007). Combination of physical technologies and nano-science enhances the durability of textile materials against washing, ultraviolet radiation, friction, abrasion, tension and fading (Kirk–Othmer, 1998). European methods for application of new functional finishing materials must meet high ethical demands for environmental-friendly processing (Fourne, 1999). For this purpose the process of textile finishing is optimized by different researchers in new findings (Elices & Llorca, 2002). Application of inorganic and organic nano-particles have enhanced synthetic fibers attributes, such as softness, durability, breathability, water repellency, fire retardancy and antimicrobial properties (Franz, 2003; McIntyre, 2005; Xanthos, 2005). This review article gives an application overview of various physical and chemical methods of inorganic and organic structured material as potential modifying agents of textiles with emphasis on dyeability enhancements. The composition of synthetic fibers includes polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyamides (PA) or polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Synthetic fibers already hold a 54% market share in the fiber market. Of this market share, PET alone accounts for almost 50% of all fiber materials in 2008 (Gubitz & Cavaco-Paulo, 2008). Polypropylene, a major component for the nonwovens market accounts for 10% of the market share of both natural and synthetic fibers worldwide (INDA, 2008 and Aizenshtein, 2008). It is apparent that synthetic polymers have unique properties, such as high uniformity, mechanical strength and resistance to chemicals or abrasion. However, high hydrophobicity, the build-up of static charges, poor breathability, and resistant to finishing are undesirable properties of synthetic materials (Gubitz & Cavaco-Paulo, 2008). Synthetic textile fibers typically undergo a variety of pre-treatments before dyeing and printing is feasible. Compared to their cotton counterparts, fabrics made from synthetic fibers undergo mild scouring before dyeing. Nonetheless, these treatments still create undesirable process conditions wh

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OrganisatieSaxion
InstituutAcademie ACT
LectoraatSmart Functional Materials
Datum2011-12-01
TypeBoekdeel
TaalEngels

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