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Xenophobia in European Societies

a case study of France and Greece

Rechten: Alle rechten voorbehouden

Xenophobia in European Societies

a case study of France and Greece

Rechten: Alle rechten voorbehouden

Samenvatting

This thesis provides an analysis of the drivers and manifestations of xenophobia in European societies. Massive migration flows have taken place in European countries during the second half of the 20th century, which have caused a swift rise of multicultural societies. This rapid societal change has caused resistance amongst native populations and the rise of xenophobic attitudes. Xenophobia refers to "the fear of the stranger" (UNESCO, 2009-2014, para. 1). This thesis discusses several drivers and manifestations of xenophobia and are tested for the countries France and Greece in a case study.
Methods of research include desk research (qualitative research) consisting of academic sources, and a case study that examines the manifestations of xenophobia in France and Greece. Desk research is the main method used in this research as most of the information is gathered from books, journals and articles. This method is chosen since it provides a significant amount of reliable information that was shared by scholars who are experienced in their fields. The case studies are a combination of articles that illustrate current events in politics and societies and academic articles of scholars that analyze those events.
Several factors play a role when it comes to the rise of xenophobic attitudes in a society and this thesis continues on the role of politics, education and national background, and tolerance. These concepts are tested for both countries and have shown more similarities than differences in xenophobic manifestations. Firstly, in both countries xenophobia has led to the rise of extreme right political parties. These parties are driven by xenophobic attitudes that emphasize differences, which is harmful to the social cohesion. The education system in both countries is driven by nationalistic, and in Greece even ethnocentric values, which generates a sense of superiority and makes minority groups feel unaccepted. Moreover, low levels of tolerance appear in both societies that also contribute to this sentiment. In both countries the level of xenophobia has reached the extent that it has manifested itself in social unrest.
The complexity in which xenophobia extends itself make it hard to draft a general conclusion for this thesis. Xenophobia is not simply shaped by one factor but includes several environmental influences. The fact that such a factor can serve as both a driver and an manifestation of xenophobia makes this attempt more complicated. However, many xenophobic attitudes seem to be derived from a limited interaction between native and immigrant groups and a limited intercultural understanding. Therefore, it would be wise to address this issue in its early stages, which is the educational system. Educating the youth about acceptance and tolerance can considered to be key.

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OrganisatieDe Haagse Hogeschool
AfdelingMO Europese Studies / European Studies
Jaar2015
TypeBachelorscriptie
TaalEngels

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