Analysis of the newest US strategy on Afghanistan and Pakistan. As such, it raises the questions what are realistic goals and ambition levels, differences between strategies of western partners, as well as burden sharing among them. Whether the new strategy will succeed, of course, also depends on Afghan efforts. Illustrating just how complex the whole effort has become, the new strategy encompasses not only the two countries, neighbouring states, other countries and international organisations involved, both stabilisation and reconstruction, but also counter-terror, counter-insurgency and counter-narcotics. Military organisations have to fulfil a crucial role in this, but only in cooperation with civilian organisations. In presentday complex operations, all this has to be managed into a comprehensive approach of also dozens of countries.