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The improvement of social behaviour during Physical Education

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The improvement of social behaviour during Physical Education

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Samenvatting

People can not live without other people. A person is always influenced, whether this is by the environment, the situation or the people(Arson, Wilson, Akert, 2005). Each way of behaviour is a reaction on the behaviour of someone else(Wijsman, 2001). Also behaviour is influenced by many factors such as social and heritable factors(Aronson, Wilson, Akert, 2005).

Social behaviour is a very large topic in which people act in a social way(Hendrixs, 1995). It contains interaction and relationships, communication, and general aspects(Shields & Bredemeier in Stegeman, 2007).
While acting in a social way people use social skills. This means that someone is able to handle the emotions of others, is able to recognise these and respond to them as well. Also there is positive interaction with others(Arson, Wilson, Akert, 2005, Vonk, 2004,www.emotionaliq.com, www.parnassys.nl). This interaction is the behaviour of a person or group in relation to another person or group occurs when people come together(Hendrixs, 1995, Groen, Jongman, Van Meggelen, 2006). Communication skills and the ability to understand relationships with others are also part of social skills(Vanden Eynden & Behets, 2005).
Acting in a social way also means being pro social, which is any behaviour that has the goal of benefitting another person(Vonk, 2004, Vanden Auweele et al, 1999, Stegeman, 2007).

Social behaviour and interaction occurs in a group. In this group people have a certain position and a role. Without it, people wouldn't know what to expect of each other(Hoeksema, van der Werf, 2002, Van Oudenhoven, 1998).
While being in a group people learn from each other how to behave in a social matter, this is called socialization. By doing so people gain an own identity as well(Hoeksema, van der Werf, 2002, Albas, Heinstra, van den Sande,1995, Hendrixs, 1996).
Within a group people influence each other, which leads to change of behaviour. This change of behaviour due to influencing of others, is named conforming and has a purpose. People feel it makes the social companionship and social contact easier. It also leads to private acceptance and self confidence (belief in oneself, its own powers) because a person feels less alone(Van Oudenhoven, 1998, Wijsman, 2001). This self-confidence is connected to the image that one has of itself. This influences the way people see and react on the social environment(Hoeksema, van der Werf, 2002, Hendrixs, 1996, Aronson, Wilson, Akert 2005).

This thesis focuses on year nine students, which are comparable with the "brugklas leerlingen" in the Netherlands. Most of the students are in the early adolescence phase. This includes mostly the physical, cognitive and social-emotional changes. Some of the physical changes become visible which can influence the social state of mind. Because of the (social) cognitive changes students come more aware of themselves and the changes around them. The value of a group increases and there is fear of rejection. Although there is a search for an own identity, the students will also have the pressure of conforming(DeHart a.o., 2000, Verhulst, 2005).

This thesis involves two countries. New Zealand where the research is done and the Netherlands were the lesson plan can be used during Physical Education. Sport and fitness in general are important in New Zealand which is also seen at schools (AA Tourism). The educational system is different as there are a number of different schools. Secondary education takes five years for everyone and the classes in schools have students with mixed abilities(www.minedu.govt.nz). Physical Education is combined with Health Education. It focuses on the well-being of students, others and the society through learning in health related and movement context. The subjects together are one of the seven learning areas of the curriculum of year nine students(The Ministry of Education - Te Tahuhu o te Matauranga, 2007).

The most important differences between Physical Education is in both countries are the fact that in New Zealand it is only compulsory in year nine and ten, while in the Netherlands this is throughout the whole school career. Also the hour table of both countries is different , as in New Zealand students have an average of four hours of P.E and Health per week, which is more than students in the Netherlands(The Ministry of Education - Te Tahuhu o te Matauranga, 2007).

The year nine students that are used for this research go to Northcote College, which is a school in the suburb of Auckland. The author taught on this school as well. The school has about 1400 students under which several with special needs. There is as special Whanau class where everything circles around the Maori culture and its traditions.

Physical Education, both in New Zealand and the Netherlands, focuses on the preparation of improvement of participation in the increasing complex and defined movement culture. Students learn attitudes and values ,appreciating and respecting the body and responding positive to others(The Ministry of Education - Te Tahuhu o te Matauranga, 2007, Kerndoelen Onderbouw - ko.slo.nl).
The subject is not in a classroom and activities mainly involve movement. Also Physical Education offers a good platform for group activities(Leper, 2002 in Vanden Eynden & Behets,2005, Vanden Auweele, 1999). Students have to work together and learn together. (Groen, Jongeman, Van Meggelen, 2006, Vanden Auweele a.o.,1999). By taken on different roles when working together in a game, students learn social tasks and the skills. The rules within a game or activity teaches students about what is acceptable (social) behaviour and what is not(Leper, 2002 in Vanden Eynden & Behets,2005, Vanden Auweele, 1999). Crucial for these improvements is the emotional and motivational climate.

Physical Education at schools have a good base to work on social goals. The pedagogical context can have a significant contribution in developing social behaviour . Physical activities at school need to be accessible for everyone and there is less focus on competition and achievement than lets say an soccer club(Svoboda, 1994 in Stegeman, 2007, Shields & Bredemeier , 1995, in Stegeman, 2007)
The improvement of moral thinking, pro social behaviour and socialisation during Physical Education can be achieved organising games with less value of winning(Jacobs & Diekstra, 2007, in Stegeman, 2007). Also the games should involve opportunities for everyone and having fun should be the first aim(Allen & Petrie, aug, 2005). The role of the teacher is essential and the focus should be on positive results, fairplay and sportsmanship, responsibility (Stegeman, 2007).

Physical Education has the potential to develop an positive self-esteem by raising physical perceptions of abilities and achievements(Vanden Auweele, 1999). Positive results mostly happen while learning new physical activities (Is- Ahola a.o in Stegeman, 2007). The feeling of achieving personal goals is essential. When playing a together all players should be involved and everyone should have fun (Bailey, in Stegeman, 2007).

The product of this thesis is a lesson plan. It contains a teacher's guide and a workbook for students. There are different themes that involve a variety of activities. All the themes have different individual and team goals. The aim of the lesson plan is to improve the social behaviour and interaction between students during Physical Education.

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OrganisatieFontys Hogescholen
AfdelingFontys Sporthogeschool
PartnersNorthcote College, New Zealand
Jaar2008
TypeBachelor
TaalEngels

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